Marine Protected Area Form

Data Kawasan Konservasi

  • 95
  • Sulawesi Tenggara
  • Muna
  • District-based MPA Muna (Selat Tiworo dan Sekitarnya)
  • Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah
  • 27,936.00
  • VI
  • 04035'00,48" - 04043'58,97" S
  • 122014'48,59" - 122026'33,32" E
  • images/FotoKawasan/Muna-(Selat-Tiworo)1.jpg
  • Located in Tiworo Islands Sub-District, Muna District, Southeast Sulawesi, the area Tiworo Strait and the unique surrounding islands has beaches with clear waters with potential of mangrove and various coastal and marine resources with high economic value. The area also has various unique and endemic biota such as jellyfish, anemone, sponge, sea cucumber, snake, starfish, crabs, shrimp, coral fish and sea ornamental fish that has experienced character and shape evolution. Thus, the Head District of Muna published the Decision Letter (SK- Surat Keputusan) No. 157 year 2004 on May 3, 2004 as the basis legalization of Tiworo Strait and surrounding islands as the marine tourism area of Tiworo Strait.

  • Geographically, the local marine conservation area of Tiworo Strait and surrounding islands is located at 04035’00.48”–04043’58.97 S dan 122014’48.59”–122026’33.32” E with area of 27,936 hectares. Tiworo Strait is under the administration of Tiworo Islands Sub-District. Tiworo Strait borders with Kendari district on the North side, Muna District on the South side, Buton Strait on the West side and Kendari District waters on the East side.

  • As Muna District is an archipelagic district, marine transportation is highly needed to connect regions within Muna and also with other regions outside Muna. There are several existing ports, either big port like Raha port or piers in several regions such as Ereke, Labuan, Maligano, Pure, Pola and Feri Tampo.
    Seafaring types available in Muna District are traditional, local, crossing, and exclusive Pertamina. Muna and Buton Islands also have good land transportation. Public transportation that connects regions within Muna is village public transportation serving routes from Raha to other sub-districts. Public transportation available within Raha are taxi, motorbike taxi, motorbikes and threewheeled vehicle (becak).

  • Muna District has tropical climate with average temperature between 25ºC – 27ºC and like other areas in Indonesia; it has two seasons–dry and rainy season. The rainy season comes between November and March, when wind blows from Asia continent and Pacific Ocean with high water vapor bringing rain to Indonesia. Meanwhile, dry season comes between May and October, when dry wind blows from Australia continent with little of water vapor.
    During 2005, there were 128 rainy days with 1,942 mm of precipitation. In this year, most rainy days (15 days) and highest precipitation (296 mm) happened in December, while fewest rainy days (4 days) and lowest precipitation (31 mm) happened in August.

  • The recorded sea temperature is between 270C – 29.00C with turbidity level of 0.3-0.6 NTU, salinity level of 33-36 ppt, pH level of 7.0-7.5 and visibility level of 12-22 m.

  • The best condition of the coral reef in Muna Island is located at Pasikolaga at the depth of 3 and 9 meter with each coverage reached 70%, 93% and 79.21%. The striking condition happened in Bonea and Masaringa island with coral reef coverage of only 41.2% and 33.27% consecutively indicated that the coral reef was heavily destroyed. The coral reef destruction was caused mainly by unsustainable fishing practice such as bombing to catch coral fish. Generally, the coral reef in Pasikolaga was dominated by coral massive and Acropora digitata. Coral massive also dominated the reefs in Masaringa and Napalakura Islands. While, Acropora branching dan coral branching dominated the reefs in Bonea and Bontu-bontu.

  • Based on census in 2000, the population of Muna District was 273,160 people with average annual growth of 1.9%. In 2005, the population has reached 304,753 people.
    Ninety nine percent of population are moslems, while the rest are Catholic, Protestant, Hindu and Budhist. Some Hindu believers are transmigrants originally from Bali. The majority of population are natives of Muna and the rest are natives of Buton, Kendari and Makassar, Bugis, Java, Sunda and Bali. The common language is Bahasa Indonesia, but people also used their native languages.
    The people of Muna District have a tradition called karia, wherein (Muna) every girl of Wuna tribe entering puberty must be isolated (Karia) for four or two days and nights depending the negotiation between Karia organizer and pomantoto. The objective of this tradition is to prepare the girls with ethical, moral and spiritual values as they take the roles of a daughter, a mother, a wife and a society member. After the isolation process, the family, relatives, and other related society members gather together and pray for the safety of the girl. In the gathering, Linda dance that depict the life stages of a woman, starting from childhood, teen, until adulthood and ready to be in marriage life, was performed.

  • Generally, the livelihood of Muna Islands district is dominated by agriculture sector. This is due to the fact that the agriculture sector (food crops, plantation, livestock, fishery and forestry) provided highest contribution with average 33% of the GDP. Service sector provided 22% contribution, followed by trade, hotel and restaurant sector with contribution of 15%, and afterwards manufacturing sector and building and construction sector.
    Based on data from Fishery office of Muna District, the majority of fishermen had monthly income of less than IDR 1 million. The lowest income was about IDR 2,111,000 per year or only IDR 350,000 per month. The fishing armada in Muna District was dominated by 2,617 units of small non-engine wooden boat called jukung (48.12%) and 874 units of boat with outboard motor (27.7%). There were only 123 units of motor boat or 4.17% of total fishing armada. The fishing equipment mostly used by the fishermen of Muna District are fishing rod (set longline, troll line, and other hook and line), gillnet (drift and set gillnet), raft and stationery liftnet, fishtrap, purse seine, shrimp seine, beach seine, and Danish seine. Specifically in Tiworo Islands sub-district, the dominant fishing gears are hook and line, set longline, set gillnet, fish trap, raft and stationery liftnet.

  • According to the data from Fishery and Marine Office of Muna District, the potential is estimated about 40,000 tons per year. The potential consists of demersal fish (grouper, snapper, Mangifera pajang sp, emperor, goldband snapper and stingray), pelagic fish (Indian mackerel, jackfish, big eye scad, longtail tuna, skipjack, tuna, white pomfret, greenback mullet, narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, and anchovy), several shrimp species, mangrove crabs, swimming crabs, lobster, sea cucumber, squid, seaweed, pearl oyster, top shell snail, oyster, and abalone. Beyond fishery, the district also has potential in sea aquaculture with area of 79,258 hectares and coastal aquaculture with area of 20,000 hectares. The existing area of coastal aquaculture has only reached 500 hectares of land.

  • The marine tourism area of Tiworo Strait was established to conserve the unique characteristics of the area with its small islands and several endemic marine biota.

  • As the district is a group of small islands, the district has a big potential in tourism sector based on the existing beauty of its beaches and sea. Below are several tourism objects that can be further developed:
    • Natural tourism objects such as cave, salty lake (Napabale lake), hot springs, waterfalls, et cetera.
    • Cultural tourism objects such as horse fighting, bull fighting, old mosque, et cetera.
    • Marine tourism objects such as white sandy beaches and coral reefs located in Monante Island, Tiworo Strait, Tobea Island, and Membuka Beach.

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Direktorat Konservasi dan Keanekaragaman Hayati Laut

Direktorat Jenderal Pengelolaan Ruang Laut

Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan



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Jl. Medan Merdeka Timur, Nomor 16

Jakarta 10110, Kotak Pos 4130

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