Marine Protected Area Form

Data Kawasan Konservasi

  • 48
  • Sumatera Barat
  • Pesisir Selatan
  • District-based MPA Pulau Penyu (Pesisir Selatan)
  • Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah
  • 174,894.00
  • 0
  • 100003’48” - 100039’35” LS
  • 1030’12” - 1042’00”BT
  • Pesisir Selatan District stretches along the West coast of West Sumatra with a coastline of 218 km and an area of 5,727.89 km2. Pesisir Selatan District is bordered by Padang in the North, the South with Solok Regency and Jambi Province, and the West with the Indonesian Ocean.

  • images/FotoKawasan/KKLD-Pulau-Penyu1.jpg
  • Penyu Island is one of the several small islands located along the coast of the Pesisir Selatan District, West Sumatra Province. In accordance to its name, Penyu Island is the island, which is a place to stopover in nesting for sea turtles, especially green sea turtle species.
    Based on these reasons, on May 19, 2003 the government issued Decree by the Head of Regency Pesisir Selatan No. 53 Year 2003 (SK Bupati Pesisir Selatan No. 53 Tahun 2003) concerning the Establishment of Penyu Island as a Marine Protected Area and Ecotourism region. Marine Protected Area Penyu Island in Pesisir Selatan has a primary function as the protection of life support systems, preservation of diversity of flora and fauna, also protect sustainability. This area can also be used for research, education, culture, and tourism, especially marine tourism. In addition, the waters surrounding Penyu Island Marine Protected Area can still be used by communities for productive economic development with due regard to the principles of environmentally friendly and sustainable management.

  • Administratively, Penyu Island Marine Protected Area and its surrounding areas are located in the Pesisir Selatan District, West Sumatra Province. Penyu Island is located in the Indian Ocean, precisely in the Western part of Pesisir Selatan District. While geographically, it is located 100°03’48 “- 100°39’35” South Latitude and 1°30’12 “- 1°42’00” East Longitude, which has a total area of approximately 733.00
    Pesisir Selatan District stretches along the West coast of West Sumatra with a coastline of 218 km and an area of 5,727.89 km2. Pesisir Selatan District is bordered by Padang in the North, the South with Solok Regency and Jambi Province, and the West with the Indonesian Ocean.

  • Penyu Island and its surrounding areas can only be reached through sea by outboard engine 40 PK boat, with a 1.5 hours travel time from the Painan. Meanwhile, the capital of Pesisir Selatan district of Painan can be reached by land from the city of Padang about 1.5 hours. The roads are in fairly good condition with beautiful scenic views along the road.

  • Penyu Island and the surrounding has a tropical climate with temperatures ranging from 26°C-33°C, and the humidity ranged from 94.35 to 97.93%. Although it has a tropical climate, the rain falls throughout the year without any sign of dry months. Dissemination of annual rainfall annual average is classified as a category of class 3,000-4,000 mm per year.

  • In general, the physical condition of the sea around Penyu Island and the surrounding is predominantly influenced by the condition of the Indonesian Ocean, because of its location directly facing the region. Waters around Penyu Island and its surrounding is very clear with coral reefs all around the island. The level of current is strong enough due to the location of the island in the middle of deep sea. Degradation of water is mainly due to coastal erosion by hard waves that hits the coast, and as a result it forms sand dunes along the coast.
    Pattern of tide that occurs here is diurnal meaning a single day occurred twice tide and ebb, with fluctuations ranging from 1-2 meters and reached a peak during the full moon. The level of current is relatively strong especially in the west monsoon season due to the wind and waters within the Indonesian Ocean. Over the bay, ranging from Tarusan district to Batang Kapas district, 20-meter isobaths line are formed, with a length of less than 1 km and a depth of 27 meters, building a steep coast.

  • In the area of Penyu Island and its surrounding, 10 species of seaweed are found to the south of the island. The types of seaweed found in this region is halimeda sp, acaulerpa sp, sargasum sp, turbinaria sp, padina australis, Laurentia sp, udotea sp, gracillaria sp, eucheuma sp, hypnea sp, and others.
    Around Penyu Island exist a good condition of coral reef ecosystems. The types of coral reefs found there, among others: branching, tabulate, encrusting, massive, sub massive, digitate, foliose, mushroom, milepora, heliopera. In the coral reef ecosystem, a large variety reef fish species of ornamental fish and fish consumption lives in these reefs. These fish include 7 families and 25 species but the population is not too high.
    The dominant fish species found were groups of small fish, such as the family of Pomacentridae, the presence this family is by nature seeks the group of Caesionidae and Carangidae. In addition, there are also other kinds of marine life such as sea urchin (Diadema sp), sea holothurian (Holothoria sp), starfish (Linckia laevigata), giant clams (Tridacna gigas), small clams (Tridacna maxima) and jellyfish (Aurelia sp), Cypraea tigris, Trochus nilotycus, snails (Cornus episcopus), sea snail (Lambis lambis), and clams (Tridacna sp).
    In Penyu Island and its surrounding areas there are three kinds of turtles (local name: katunga) that are: hawksbill turtles (Eretmohelis imbricata), leatherback turtles (Dermochelis coriacea), and green turtle (Chelonia mydas). At the time of peak spawning season, the green turtle turtles land on the island each night on average 15-20 turtles, while the hawksbill turtle is only about 10 turtles (before 1980s). In 1989 the estimated number of sea turtle nesting only a total of five turtles laying around 80-120 eggs per nest.
    The habitat for turtle nesting in the Pesisir Selatan District is not only in Penyu Island, but there are also small islands around it, including Among Karabak Kecil Island, Karabak Besar Island, and Beringin Besar Island.
    Penyu Island is also the habitat for nesting, breeding and resting for white Pied Imperial-pigeon (burung pergam laut putih, Ducula bicolor). Other marine bird species found are Glossy Ibis (burung roko-roko, Plegadis falcinellus) who came in search of food on the coast of Penyu Island, pigeons (burung punai, Treron sp), caucals (burung bubut, Centropus sp), Straw-headed Bulbul (burung cucak rawa, Pycnonotus sp), bulbul (burung baraba, Pycnonotus goiaiver), tern (burung dara laut, Sterna sp), sunbird (burung madu, Nectarinia sp), flowerpecker (burung cabe, Dicaeum sp), black-headed fruit dove (burung walik kembang, Ptilinopus melanospilus).

  • Based on the census conducted in 2002, the number of residents in Sutera District is 13,678 people across three District, Batang Kapas District of 29,474 inhabitants, Empat Jurai Districk of 46,156 inhabitants, and Bayang District of 46,272 inhabitants. The people of Pesisir Selatan are Minangkabau people with storong holds of its tradition which is based on the philosophy “Adat Basandi Syarak, Syarak Basandi Kitabullah” meaning to work wholeheartedly, by mobilizing all the potentials that exist.
    The implication of such philosophy is that all the behavior of individuals, groups and community and government is based on noble values and traditional norms and based on religious teaching. This relation to conservation effort is that based on Islamic teaching the concept of conservation exist through the prohibitions of human mischief on earth.

  • The coastal communities in Pesisir Selatan district in general have a livelihood similar to other coastal areas, that is based on agriculture and fisheries, either as fishermen and fish farmers. For fisheries, the number of fishermen in the Pesisir Selatan District is about 10,406 fishermen spreading over nine districts with 47 coastal villages. Number of Households (Rumah Tangga Perikanan-RTP) consists of 9,056 households; heavy water fish farmers of 900 households are organized under fishermen association. The general use of fishing gears is beach seine (pukat tepi), seine, trammel net and monofilament net. The fishing fleet type used was the boat without motor that consist of 554 vessels, and the least used are the outboard motor that is 317 units.
    While aquaculture activities in the Pesisir Selatan in general is not well developed. The major constraint in the implementation of aquaculture is the lack of capital, the limited knowledge in aquaculture management, and limited placement location for the cultivation of such fisheries. The type of cultivation is the seaweed, mud crab, and shrimp.

  • The economic potential in fishery of Pesisir Selatan District reached 95,000 tons per year, consisting of 14,457.09 tons of large pelagic fish, 19,550.91 tons of small pelagic fish, 60,453.73 tons of demersal fish and 556.2 tons of shrimp species. In the Pesisir Selatan there are also export quality tuna fish. Besides fish, also potential for the development of seaweed cultivation, such as in Tarusan, Jurai and Batang Kapas.

  • Conservation effort in declaring Penyu Island as a Marine Protected Area is due to its purpose as a breeding and resting places for the white Pied Imperial-pigeon (Ducula bicolor).

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Direktorat Konservasi dan Keanekaragaman Hayati Laut

Direktorat Jenderal Pengelolaan Ruang Laut

Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan



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