Planning and Management of Indonesian Marine Protected Area

One of the effective tools for the management of coastal zones and marine is by developing Marine Protected Area (MPA), namely by allocating part of the coastal zones and marine as an area for protecting highly economical important marine fishes to raise and breed properly. By allocating part of the coastal zones and marine that have high biodiversity, healthy coral reefs ecosystem, and providing an area for the protection of fisheries resources, it would ultimately support the sustainable fishery and tourism activities and restore the condition of the degraded coastal zones habitat.

The definition of Marine Protected Area according to IUCN (1994) is any area of intertidal or sub-tidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Whereas according to the Government Regulation No. 60 of 2007 it is stated that Marine Protected Area (MPA) is a marine protected area, managed by zoning system, to create a sustainable management of fisheries resources and its environment. MPA consists of Marine National Park, Marine Nature Tourism Park, Marine Wildlife Reserve, and Fisheries Reserve.

Indrajaya et al. (2011) stated in more details that there are a number of benefits of the existence of MPA in the natural and social systems, namely :

  1. Marine biota protection in a certain stage within its life cycle,
  2. Critical and permanent habitat protection (for example coral reefs, estuary),
  3. Archeological culture and location protection,
  4. Protection against local culture and traditional value of a sustainable marine management,
  5. Assuring an area is available to enable change of species distribution as a response to change of climate or other environment,
  6. Assuring the availability of a protected area (refugia) for the enrichment of important economical stock of fishes
  7. Providing a framework to settle multi-stakeholders conflict,
  8. Providing a model for an integrated coastal zones management,
  9. Providing income resources and jobs,
  10. Assuring the availability of an area to conduct a scientific research, education and recreation.

The Planning and Process in establishing a Marine Protected Area (MPA)

As stated previously that to achieve an effective MPA management, an appropriate strategy is required starting from the stage of location selection through its management implementation. Based on some scientifiec references, a location could be selected as a MPA for meeting one or more criteria mentioned below:

  1. Relatively natural - locations which are still in good condition
  2. Representativeness - unique location is quite important in the ecology process such as breeding area, nursery area and/or area with important economic species.
  3. Biodiversity - location with high species diversity/ecosystem; location with endemic species (species that live in a certain location or region)
  4. Sensitivity - location with high resources/diversity which is relatively sensitive to disruption or destruction
  5. Fisheries value - a strategic location to improve fisheries; location of high productivity or a breeding or nursery area.
  6. Tourism value - location which if protected could increase recreational activities and income from eco-tourism.
  7. Social acceptance - acceptable by all relevant parties
  8. Practicality in management - feasibility and level of ease in implementing management

With reference to the Government Regulation No. 60 Article 8 paragraph 3, selection of a MPA location shall at least be made based on the following criteria :

  1. ecology, covering biodiversity, natural setting, ecology relevance, representativeness, uniqueness, productivity, migration area, habitat of rare fish species, fish breeding area, and nursery area;
  2. social and culture, covering the level of support from people, potential conflict of interest, potential threat, indigenous knowledge and local customs; as well as
  3. economy, covering the important value of fisheries, potential recreation and tourism, esthetics, and ease of reaching the area.

To get to the stage of determining a MPA, a number of activities is required that include proposal for the location, scientific study of the location, reservation, establishment of organizational units, management plan preparation and submission of proposed location to the Minister. MPA may only be determined by the Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries after going through a review and evaluation process on the proposed area.

Initiative Proposal of a potential marine conservation area may be submitted by an individual, community group, research institution, government agency and non-governmental organization. It is recommended that the submission of an initiative proposal of potential marine conservation area is accompanied with the initial study result and location map, and it is submitted to the Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries or the to the regional head at the provincial level (Governor) or regency/city (Regent or Mayor).

The next stage is to implement a comprehensive identification and study on the proposed location in supporting the recommendation of the potential MPA. The identification and study shall also include activities such as survey and evaluation on the potential location, socialization and public consultation as well as coordination with the relevant stakeholders. The said public consultation is to communicate the result of the survey and evaluation on the potential impact to the people in the vicinity, including obtaining feedback and agreement on how large the area of the potential MPA. Whereas the coordination with the relevant institution is for the purpose of aligning the potential MPA with the spatial utilization and alocation in the local administration area.

Reservation of MPA by the Minister, or Governor, or Regent, or Mayor shall be made in the subsequent stages based on the recommendations of the potential MPA survey team. The determination of MPA reservation should contain among other things, the location, area and type of MPA, as well as the appointment of managing organizational unit. Whereas the MPA determination is under the authority of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and it is based on the proposal and evaluation on the complete data and information, as well as feasibility of the location for a MPA in supporting a sustainable fisheries management. The MPA determined by a Minister should be followed up by a socialization to the public and administration of area boundaries involving the related stakeholders.

Subsequently, management of a MPA shall be carried out by a managing organizational unit according to the laws and regulations. The MPA management is based on the MPA Management Plan prepared by the management. The management plan shall consist of a 20 year long term management plan, 5 year mid term plan, and an annual plan (action plan). The MPA management plan should contain the vision and mission of MPA management, objectives and targets of management, as well as MPA management strategy. The MPA management strategy should, at the minimum, include institutional strengthening strategy, area resources management strengthening, and social, economic, cultural strengthening. Details regarding the preparation of the plan for the MPA management and zoning are contained in the Regulation of Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries No. 30 of 2010.

Each MPA management plan prepared by the management should contain MPA zoning, consisting of core zone, sustainable fisheries zone; utilization zone; and other zones. In addition to the core zone, MPA may be utilized for various purposes to support the sustainable fisheries tourism. MPA Utilization may be carried out with the following rules :

  1. fishing activities may be carried out in the sustainable fisheries zone
  2. fish cultivation may be carried out in the sustainable fisheries zone
  3. marine tourism activities may be carried out in the utilization zone and or sustainable fisheries zone research and educational activities may be implemented in the core zone, sustainable fishery zone, utilization zone, as well as other zones
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Direktorat Konservasi dan Keanekaragaman Hayati Laut

Direktorat Jenderal Pengelolaan Ruang Laut

Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan



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