Target and Conservation Status

Target for the development of 10 million ha of MPA was for the first time declared in 2006 by the then Minister of Marine Affair and Fisheries, Prof. Dr. Rokhmin Dahuri before the officials of several countries. The commitment was then affirmed by the President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono before the hearing of the Meeting of CBD Parties in March 2006 in Brazil who declared that Indonesia has a target to develop MPA of 10 million ha in 2010 and it should be double than that in 2020. Further in the plan of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KemenKP) it is stated that to achieve 20 million ha, the MPA area in 2014 is targeted to have reached 15,5 million ha, so that within the next 6 years at the minimum 4,5 million new MPA should be developed.

Roadmap for achieving the target of KemenKP in 2014 is contained in the Strategic Plan of the Directorate for Conservation of Area and Fish Species 2010 2014. The target of area and management of MPA in the Strategic Plan is described in the following Table:



Areas prioritized for MPA development have been identified by Huffard et al. (2010). In the study it was stated that Indonesia is divided into 12 ecoregions and it is put in order based on ecological indicators such as the diversity of the types of coral reefs, mangrove, and seagrass, endemic species etc. Picture 1 shows the boundaries of ecoregion 1 (Papua, the highest priority for conservation) through ecoregion 12 (Malaka Strait, the lowest priority for conservation).

Based on the fact that Indonesia has a territorial marine area of 310 million ha, the 2020 target would only achieve 6,5% of the territorial marine area. Whereas the commitment made in the CBD 10 meeting in Nagoya, it is expected that Indonesia has an MPA area of 10% of the territorial marine area. This means that Indonesia should allocate 31 million ha of MPA in its territorial marine area. For this commitment, the Indonesian government has not issued its official statement regarding timing for its achievement.

For conservation of fish species, based on the strategic plan of the Directorate for Conservation of Area and Fish Species, KemenKP, it is stated that the government has targeted an effective management on the 15 endemic, rare and extinct fish species in 2014. An effective management for this type of conservation covers the activities of identication and mapping of extinct, rare and endemic fishes. In addition, there is a target to enhance the protection and conservation status and regulation for a sustainable utilization of the fish resources. The target of 15 fish species for that type of conservation are napoleon, arwana super red, arwana jardini, seahorse, coral , shark, whale, Fish Banggai Cardinal Fish, kima, fish with highly prized roe (terubuk), freshwater turtle, lola, sea cucumber, turtle and seacow.



In addition to the target of area and conservation of fish species, marine experts have made a great deal of researches and published the target for conservation of important habitat of coastal and marine resources. The said important habitat or critical habitats are coral reefs, mangraove forest, and seagrass. According to Bohnsack et al. (2000), protecting approximately 20 - 30% area of coral reefs have proven to support a sustainable coral reefs ecosystem. While PISCO (2002) suspect that the optimal utilization of MPA management by the spill-over and larvae production will increase with the protection of 20-30% areas of important habitat. After exceeding 20-30%, MPA will be very extensive, so that it will decrease fish production due to the narrowing fishing area for the people.



Conservation Status

Up to the beginning of 2011, Indonesia already developed 13,95 million ha of MPA. The development of MPA area has been increasing significantly since 2003. In 2003 the total new MPA area reached 5,42 million ha which almost all is the initiatives of the Ministry of Forestry. Only an area of 733 ha represents the initiatives of KemenKP or less than 1%. However, at the moment there is an increase up to 9,26 million ha or about 66% of the total MPA area (Dermawan, 2010) (Table 1)


KemenKP initiated the establishment of Marine National Park (TNP) of Sawu Sea in the area of 3,5 million ha, while the initiatives of the Regional Government for the area of 5 million ha are through the establishment of Regional MPA. The achievement of the MPA area comprising 4,5% of the Indonesian territorial marine area and has exceeded the 2010 target of government 's commitment to develop a 10 million ha of MPA. In order to meeet the government target in 2014, the government should further develop a new 1,5 milloin ha MPA

Table 2 illustrates in details the type of protected areas, total area and how large the area is. The total area does not include a number of fisheries reserves. Marine Sanctuary (DPL) in the level of communities spread in the regions of North Sulawesi, Lampung Bay and areas of COREMAP II project location. In the table it could be seen that currently KemenKP and Regional Government have the obligation to manage approximately 9,26 million ha spread throughout Indonesian archipelagoes.


Table2. Status of MPA up to early 2011


From the perspective of protection of critical habitats, the result of 2010 analysis gap on protected areas in Indonesia concluded that the Indonesian coral reefs ecosystem covers an area of 3,29 million ha, mangrove forest of 3,45 million ha, and seagrass area of 1,76 million ha (Ministry of Forestry and KemenKP, 2010). Out of the area, currently Indonesia has protected 22,7% coral reefs (747.190 ha), 22,0% mangrove forest (758.472 ha), and17,0% seagrass (304.866 ha). Achievement of protection on important habitat in each ecoregion is presented in the Table 3 below.


Table3. Persentation of protected critical habitat in each ecoregion


Source: Ministry of Forestry and Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, 2010

Pursuant to the Table above, it is necessary to strive for developing MPA in the ecoregions which currently have not met the target, particularly in the ecoregion of Halmahera. In this ecoregion there is no protection yet to the important habitat, either mangrove forestry, coral reefs or seagrass. The study of Huffard et al. (2010) recommended MPA development in the ecoregions of Halmahera, South Sumatra, and Sulawesi Sea/Makassar Strait.



Bohnsack, J.A., B. Causey, M.P. Crosby, R.B. Griffis, M.A. Hixon, T.F. Hourigan, K.H. Koltes, J.E. Maragos, A. Simons, J.T. Tilmant. 2000. A rationale for minimum 20-30% no-take protection. Proceeding of the 9th International Coral reef Symposium, 23-27 October 2000. Bali, Indonesia.

Collin, I.M., Z. Fahmi, C. Leisher, A. Halim, S.W. Adi. 2006. Protected Area Funding in Indonesia. State Ministry of Environment. Jakarta.

Dermawan, A. 2010. Refleksi Direktorat Konservasi Kawasan dan Jenis Ikan 2010 dan Outlook 2011. Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Jakarta

Huffard, C.L., M.V. Erdman, T. Gunawan. 2010. Defining Geographic Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation in Indonesia. Coral Triangle Support Partnership. Jakarta

Kementerian Kehutanan dan Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. 2010. Analisis Kesenjangan Keterwakilan Ekologis Kawasan Konservasi di Indonesia. Kementerian Kehutanan dan Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Jakarta.

PISCO (Partnership for the Interdisciplinary Study of Coastal Oceans). 2002. The Science of marine reserves.






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Direktorat Jenderal Pengelolaan Ruang Laut

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