Marine, Coastal and Small Islands Protected Areas: Paradigm, Development and Management

cover-bukukawasanAs an archipelagic country with high marine biodiversity, Indonesia is abundant in marine resources, especially in its coastal areas and small islands that are rich in ecosystem, home to fish and other organisms, where they feed, nest and spawn.

About 55% of all fisheries production of the country is derived from coastal areas, especially from sea grass, mangrove, coral reef, lagoon, and estuary. Thanks to over 2,000 fish species and 500 coral reefs, Indonesia is known as a Coral Triangle Center. Coral reef ecosystem, apart from its function as marine biota, also functions as carbon absorber, sea wave breaker, and fish producer, which benefits coastal communities' welfare in particular and all Indonesian people in general.

Geographically Indonesia is a tropical country with complete ecosystem and high biodiversity. Unfortunately, unfriendly catch and overfishing, waste disposal, sea sand mining, and other destructive practices threaten ecosystem resources sustainability, especially coastal and small islands ecosystems. This is compounded by sub-system catch pattern, low education level, and selling chain system that does not take side on the fishermen. The number of poor fishermen in Indonesia in 2012 reached 7.87 million, representing 10,600 fishermen coastal villages throughout the country or 25.14 percent of total national the poor which reached 31,02 million people.

It is not a hyperbole to say that coastal areas and small islands are one of the hearts of Indonesian economy. It is in this part of the country reside most of our citizens. It is also the place where they make a living. In other words, the real living pulse of Indonesia can be found in these areas. In this regard, one of the programs of coastal areas and small islands sustainable management is carried out through conservation which aims to protect, preserve and sustainably manage fisheries resources, covering ecosystem, species, and genetics. One of ecosystem conservation efforts is done through development and determination of Marine, Coastal and Small Islands Protected Areas which are managed through zoning system. Examples of such a zoning system include sustainable fisheries zone that be utilized by community for aquaculture and nature-friendly fish catch, and utilization zone that can be developed for marine tourism activities. This program is in line with Blue Economy principle which supports marine and fisheries industrialization.

We realize that management of potential resources of coastal areas and small islands must also be consistent with the protection and preservation efforts. Therefore, the stock of fish resources must be maintained to ensure today and tomorrow's people's welfare. Law No. 27 of 2007 and the Regulation of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries No.Per.17/MEN/2008 mandated and govern how conservation should be run to ensure the availability of fish resources, particularly in coastal areas and small islands. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in his speech at the World Ocean Conference (WOC) in Manado in 2009 delivered this country's commitment to the achievement of 20 million hectares of marine, coastal and small islands protected areas by 2020. To that end, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries continues to work hard to realize these targets in order to maintain the sustainability of the fish resource potential in Indonesia.

Conservation issues today has become a global concern as well as a strategic issue in many countries, and Indonesia is no exception. With abundant resource potentials, Indonesia is required to manage its marine and fisheries resources effectively and sustainably for the people's welfare.

penyu-kons kawConservation of fisheries resources can be defined as the protection, conservation, and utilization of fishery resources, including ecosystems, species, and genetic to ensure the existence, availability, and continuity while at the same time maintaining and improving the quality and diversity of fish resources. The application of the old paradigm that framed the conservation area management as a centralized and closed (prohibition) effort for all parties in the context of its use should be admitted as having less socio economic impact to the community. Besides, this approach did not receive much positive response from the public. But now the old paradigm has been changed so that conservation efforts can be aligned with efforts to use resources responsibly. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries through the Directorate of Fish Resources Conservation is present to address these paradigm shift challenges.

Thanks to the collaboration between the central government, local governments and local communities in the conservation of fishery resources, to date we have established around 15.78 million hectares area of marine, coastal and small islands protected areas. The Indonesian government is committed to round up this size up to 20 million hectares by 2020. The commitment is indeed align with the commitment to improve the status of these MPAs management effectiveness status. As its title suggests, the book "Marine, Coastal and Small Islands Protected Areas in Indonesia: Paradigm, Development and Management" explains a conservation new paradigm in such aspects as decentralization of policies and zoning system in its management, progress of MPA management effectiveness, and information and data profiles of marine, coastal and small islands protected areas in Indonesia. This book is expected to provide complete information on a wealth of biological resources in our marine, coastal and small islands areas as well as a lesson in the development of conservation areas in the future.

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Direktorat Konservasi Kawasan dan Jenis Ikan

Direktorat Jenderal Kelautan Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil

Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

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